Heart in The Sky Wallpaper 2560X1600
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|Description:||Heart in The Sky Wallpaper 2560X1600|
|Category||LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP WALLPAPERS|
|Image Filesize||215.3 KB|
|Last view date||06.03.2015 08:48|
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|File size:||215.3 KB|
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The heart is a muscular organ in both humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, and also assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle compartment of the mediastinum in the chest.
In humans, other mammals and birds the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish in contrast have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium; myocardium; and endocardium.
The heart pumps blood through both circulatory systems. Blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation"where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. In addition the blood carries nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body, while transporting waste to the liver and kidneys. Normally with each heartbeat, the right ventricle pumps the same amount of blood into the lungs as the left ventricle pumps out into the body. Veins transport blood to the heart, while arteries transport blood away from the heart. Veins normally have lower pressures than arteries. The heart contracts at a rate of around 72 beats per minute, at rest. Exercise temporarily increases this rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were the most common cause of death globally in 2008. CVD accounted for 30% of death cases during this year alone. Of these deaths more than three quarters were due to coronary artery disease and stroke. Risk factors include: smoking, being overweight, not enough exercise, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and poorly controlled diabetes among others. Diagnosis of CVD is often done by listening to the heart-sounds with a stethoscope, ECG or by ultrasound. Diseases of the heart are primarily treated by cardiologists, although many specialties of medicine may be involved.
The heart is situated in the middle of the mediastinum behind the breastbone in the chest, at the level of thoracic vertebrae T5-T8. The largest part of the heart is usually slightly offset to the left (though occasionally it may be offset to the right). The heart is usually felt to be on the left side because the left heart is stronger, since it pumps to all body parts. The left lung in turn is smaller than the right lung because it has to accommodate the heart. The heart is supplied by the coronary circulation and is enclosed in the pericardial sac.
The pericardium encloses the heart and also attaches to the mediastinum via the pericardiac pleura, providing anchorage for the heart. The back surface of the heart lies near to the vertebral column, and the front surface sits deep to the sternum and costal cartilages. The two great veins, the venae cavae, and the great arteries, the aorta and pulmonary trunk, are attached to the upper surface of the heart, called the base, which is located at the level of the third costal cartilage. The lower tip of the heart, the apex, lies just to the left of the sternum between the junction of the fourth and fifth ribs near their articulation with the costal cartilages. The right side of the heart is deflected forwards, and the left side is deflected to the back.
The shape of the heart is similar to a pinecone, rather broad at the base and tapering to the apex. A stethoscope can be placed directly over the apex so that the beats can be counted. An adult heart has a mass of 250"350 grams (9"12 oz). The heart is typically the size of a fist: 12 cm (5 in) in length, 8 cm (3.5 in) wide, and 6 cm (2.5 in) in thickness. Well-trained athletes can have much larger hearts due to the effects of exercise on the heart muscle, similar to the response of skeletal muscle.Source: Wikipedia